We purchased the C-Therm TCi Thermal Conductivity Analyzer after seeing a demonstration of how fast and easy it is to operate. The instrument provides unequivocal results and provides the flexibility to test powders and liquids. In terms of our satisfaction with the purchase, I’d give it a 10 out of 10 – extremely satisfied.
Dr. Enrique Jackson, NASA (Sector: Aerospace)
The C-Therm TCi Thermal Conductivity Analyzer has provided our group a fast, accurate capability to test the thermal conductivity of our polymers with C-Therm’s patented high-precision MTPS sensor. The instrument has become very popular within our group for its quick easy reliable measurement and the support from C-Therm has exceeded our expectations. We recently upgraded the unit with the new robust TLS module for work on polymer melts.
Jose Fonseca, Expert Thermodynamics, Covestro (Sector: Polymers)
Seaforth Geosurveys turned to the C-Therm TCi for effective thermal conductivity characterization in our exploration vessel’s on-board lab. The portability and ease of use of the instrument allowed our technicians to rapidly measure thermal conductivity of our geological core samples accurately and consistently in a 24-7 operation. As a Nova Scotia based company working worldwide, we were pleased to have a local, made in Atlantic Canada solution for our project requirements. We would recommend the Trident for any research or screening with a focus on geological and/or in-situ applications, and we will continue to utilize it on new exploration missions.
David Lombardi, President of Seaforth Geosurveys Inc. (Sector: Geology / Oil & Gas)
Seaforth Geosurveys Inc.
The C-Therm TCi has been a key piece of testing equipment at Haydale, providing fast and accurate thermal conductivity measurements for our product development of nanocomposites. Having this capability has allowed a better understanding of the dispersion of nanomaterials in polymer matrices through thermal mapping sample surfaces. The support and customer service from C-Therm has been excellent over the years, we look forward to dealing with them again in the near future.
Stuart Sykes, Haydale Composites Solutions Ltd. (Sector: Nanocomposites)
Haydale Composites Solutions Ltd.
The TCi is housed in our Golden facility and does most of the heavy lifting for our LHS® industrial product development and production QC for standard thermal conductivity measurements. The machine has been working fine.
Mark Hartmann, Chief Technology Officer, Outlast Technologies (Sector: Phase Change Materials)
C-Therm's Trident system offers three different modes of operation in measuring the thermal conductivity of materials. The MTPS high precision method is the simplest and most versatile. The TLS Needle method provides maximum robustness for those sticky situations. The Flex TPS method provides the greatest flexibility over experimental parameters with C-Therm's flex sensors. Learn more about how each method works below.
Simple and Precise. The MTPS method employs a single-sided sensor to directly measure thermal conductivity and effusivity of materials. The MTPS method has the highest precision, highest sensitivity, shortest test time, and is the easiest to use among all three techniques.Principles of Operation
Trident’s primary sensor employs the Modified Transient Plane Source (MTPS) technique in characterizing the thermal conductivity and effusivity of materials. It employs a single-sided, interfacial heat reflectance sensor that applies a momentary constant heat source to the sample. Typically, the measurement pulse is between 1 to 3 seconds. Thermal conductivity and effusivity are measured directly, providing a detailed overview of the heat transfer properties of the sample material.
The TLS method employs a needle probe to characterize the thermal conductivity of viscous and granular materials. It is the most robust sensor for thermal conductivity testing.Principles of Operation
The Transient Line Source (TLS) technique operates in accordance with ASTM D5334, D5930 and IEEE Std 442-1981. Commonly referred to as needle probes, The TLS sensors provide a robust and efficient solution for measuring the thermal conductivity of granular materials, powders, polymer melts, soils, slurries, gels, and pastes.
This technique involves placing an electrically heated needle into a material. The heat flows out radially from the needle into the sample. During heating, the temperature difference between a thermocouple (T1) positioned in the middle of the heating wire, and a second thermocouple (T2) located at the tip of the needle is measured. By plotting this temperature difference versus the logarithm of time, thermal conductivity can be calculated. Typically, the measurement is on the order of 2-10 minutes.
The TPS method employs a double-sided sensor in characterizing the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of materials. TPS provides the user the greatest flexibility and control over experimental parameters and avoids the use of any contact agents. Recommended for more experienced users.Principles of Operation
The C-Therm Trident Thermal Conductivity Analyzer Flex configuration employs the Transient Plane Source (TPS) technique in characterizing the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of materials, conforming to ISO standard 22007-2.
|Test Methods||MTPS||TLS Needle||Flex TPS|
|Recommended applications||Aerogels, Automotive, Batteries, Composites, Insulation, Explosives, Geological, Liquids, Metals, Nanomaterials, Metal Hydrides, Nuclear, Phase Change Materials (PCMs), Polymers, Rubber, Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs), Thermoelectric||Polymer Melts, Semi-Solids, & Soil.
(Not suitable for lower viscosity fluids due to convection.)
|Cement/Concrete, Porous Ceramics, & Polymers|
|Thermal Conductivity Range||0 to 500 W/mK||0.1 to 6 W/mK||0.03 to 500 W/mK|
|Thermal Effusivity Range||5 to 40,000 Ws½/m²K||Not available||Not available|
|Temperature Range||-50º to 200ºC
-With option to extend to 500ºC
|-55º to 200ºC||-50º to 300ºC|
|Precision||Better than 1%||Better than 3%||Better than 2%|
|Accuracy||Better than 5%||Stated for °20C
± (3% + 0.02) W/mK
|Better than 5%|
|Test Time||0.8 to 3 seconds||1 to 4 minutes||10 to 180 seconds|
|Sensor Size||18 mm diameter||150 mm length||6 mm, 13 mm and 30 mm diameter sensors available|
|Minimum Sample Size||Solids:
Min. diameter of 18 mm Min. thickness is dependent on the thermal conductivity. For materials under 1 W/mK a min. thickness of 1 mm is suggested.
Liquids & Powders:
|80 mL||Requires two identical samples.
The diameter of the samples should be 2.5X sensor diameter (e.g. 6 mm sensor requires sample diameter of 15 mm)
Thickness should be at minimum the same diameter as the sensor (e.g. 6 mm sensor requires 6 mm thick samples.
|Maximum Sample Size||Unlimited||Unlimited||Unlimited|
|International Standards||ASTM D7984||ASTM D5334, D5930, and IEEE 442-1981||ISO 22007-2|
The C-Therm TECAS™ software is developed for the Trident system to control all 3 sensor types. The software is highly user-friendly and easy to navigate. It provides full data acquisition and analysis in one software.
Controlling environmental factors during testing is critical to gaining meaningful, repeatable and comparable thermal conductivity results. With C-Therm’s line of accessories, precise control of temperature, compression, pressure and humidity is possible – with a wide range of accessories available.